Introduction: Elections are considered to be the medium through which democratic government works. As the democratic government system requires regular parliamentary elections, the question of a free and fair election is also important. After the downfall of Ershad in 1990, the parties in movement invented the concept of the Caretaker government so that no party can influence the process of election.
What is Caretaker Govt: A Caretaker government is such a government which is not concerned with any political party. In other words, the govt which conducts national elections freely and fairly is a caretaker government. It must be in power for a fixed time. It must be hand over the power to the elected govt.
Background of the concept of Caretaker Govt: The concept of Caretaker Govt. was totally new to the general people of Bangladesh. Although there is a controversy regarding the person that introduced. the concept first in Bangladesh. Jamat-e-Islami claims that Professor Gulam Azam, Amir of the Party, introduced the concept first. 0n the other hand Awami League tends to credit their leader Sheikh Hasina for introducing such a concept. However all the, then opposition parties in parliament were in favor of the proposed system and finally they became united and created pressure on the government to introduce a bill in the parliament on the Caretaker government. At the final stage of their movement, the opposition parties. resigned from the parliament and called for a non-stop strike until the govt resign. At one point in the movement, the government introduced the 13th amendment bill regarding the caretaker government and finally passed it. Today, the system of Caretaker govt. is part of our constitution.
First Caretaker Govt. in Bangladesh: The Caretaker Govt. in Bangladesh was formed for the country’s emergency period. For the first time, Justice Shahabuddin Ahmed was unanimously chosen as the chief advisor of the Caretaker Govt. He peacefully governed the country from December 6, 1990, to March 20, 1991, until Begum Khaleda Zia took an oath and remained acting president till October 9, 1991, when President Abdur Rahman Biswas took the formal charge.
Second Caretaker Govt. in Bangladesh: For the 2nd time Justice Mohammad Habibur Rahman was chosen as the Head of the Caretaker Govt. on March -30, 1996 up to June 23, 1996. Then Awamileague came to power through election. He played a very important role in holding a free and fair election in the state.
Third Caretaker Govt. in Bangladesh: For the third time Justice Latifur Rahman was selected as the Head of the caretaker Govt. He managed to hold the election and then the BNP came to power through the election.
The necessity of Caretaker Govt: The Caretaker government works as an interim government. It will help all the officers of the government. It will help the election commission to hold a free and fair election. It will also work to stop corruption and nepotism. It will create an environment in which honest and qualified candidates can take part in elections fearlessly. It will also work to check black money and take effective steps to stop muscle power. So, the necessity of Caretaker Govt. can not be denied in the true sense.
Conclusion: The system of Caretaker Govt. is a blessing for the democratic people of the country. Although some political parties today are denouncing against the system, such opposition has no ground among the masses. So, the system should be survived for the very interest of democracy and national progress.